Mar 3, 2011

India, largely a Country of Immigrants - Dravidians are no more the Original Inhabitants of India - an Opposition

“…………………It would seem probable, then, that the original speakers of the Dravidian languages were outsiders, and that the ethnographical Dravidians are a mixed race. ……………….No theory of their origin can be maintained which does not account for the existence of Brahui, the large island of Dravidian speech in the mountainous regions of distant Baluchistan which lie near the western routes into India. Is
Brahui a surviving trace of the immigration of Dravidian ……..”

“…………Thus the generally accepted view now is that the original inhabitants
of India were not the Dravidians but the pre-Dravidians……………..”

The Hindu daily dated 12.01.2011 published an article with a headline stating the projection of a thesis by Supreme Court  that says “India, largely a Country of Immigrants”. The projection of this statement is made in connection with the judgment issued on January 5, 2011 by Supreme Court of India Bench comprising Justice Markandey Katju and Justice Gyan Sudha Misra . This historical disquisition came in Criminal Appeal No. 11 of 2011, arising out of Special Leave Petition No. 10367 of 2010 in Kailas & Others versus State of Maharashtra TR. Taluka P.S. The judgement is delivered on the case that been filed against the final judgment and order dated 10.03.2010 in Criminal Appeal No. 62 of 1998 passed by the Aurangabad Bench of Bombay High Court.

The victim in the present case is a young woman Nandabai 25 years of age belonging to the Bhil tribe which is a Scheduled Tribe (ST) in Maharashtra, who was beaten with fists and kicks and stripped naked by the accused persons after tearing her blouse and brassieres and then got paraded in naked condition on the road of a village while being beaten and abused by the accused herein.

The prosecution case is that the victim Nandabai who belongs to the Bhil community was residing with her father, handicapped brother, and lunatic sister. She had illicit relations with PW9 Vikram and had given birth to his daughter and was also pregnant through him for a second time. Vikram belongs to a higher caste and his marriage was being arranged by his family with a woman of his own caste. On 13.5.1994 at about 5.00 P.M. when the victim Nandabai was at her house the four accused went to her house and asked why she had illicit relations with Vikram and started beating her with fists and kicks. At that time the accused Kailas and Balu held her hands while accused Subabai @ Subhadra removed her sari.

The accused Subhash then removed her petticoat and accused Subabai tore the blouse and brassiere of the victim Nandabai.  Thereafter the accused Subabai and Balu paraded the victim Nandabai on the road of the village and at that time the four accused herein were beating and abusing the victim Nandabai. 8. At about 8.40 p.m. an FIR was lodged at Taluka Police Station and  after investigation a charge-sheet was filed. After taking evidence the  learned Additional Sessions Judge convicted the  accused after investigation a charge-sheet was filed. After taking evidence the learned Additional Sessions Judge convicted the  accused.

The four accused were convicted by the Additional Sessions Judge, Ahmednagar on 05.02.1998 under Sections 452, 354, 323, 506(2) read with Section 34 IPC and sentenced to suffer RI for six months and to pay a fine of Rs. 100/-. They were also sentenced to suffer RI for one year and to pay a fine of Rs. 100/- for the offence punishable under Sections 354/34 IPC. They were also sentenced under Section 323/34 IPC and sentenced to three months RI and to pay a fine of Rs. 100/-. The appellants were further convicted under Section 3 of the Scheduled Cases and Scheduled Tribes 2(Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 and sentenced to suffer RI for one year and to pay a fine of Rs. 100/-.

In appeal before the High Court the appellants were acquitted of the offence under Section 3 of the SC/ST Act, but the conviction under the provisions of the IPC were confirmed. However, that part of the order regarding fine was set aside and each of the appellant was directed to pay a fine of Rs. 5000/- only to the victim Nandabai.

The above case was appealed in Supreme Court and was heard by Hon'ble Mr. Justice Markandey Katju and Hon'ble Mrs. Justice Gyan Sudha Misra. They said that “We are surprised that the conviction of the accused under the Scheduled Cases and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 was set aside on hyper technical grounds that the Caste Certificate was not produced and investigation by a Police Officer of the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police was not done. These appear to be only technicalities and hardly a ground for acquittal, but since no appeal has been filed against that part of the High Court judgment, we are now not going into it”. Fair Judgement was given and atrocities against the Tribal Communities were also condemned by them. In this context we are so grateful to the judges and convey our appreciation to them for their concern towards the Minorities.

On the other hand the Projections made about the Dravidians, the origin of Dravidian Language provokes few questions within and is to be debated. Similarly in a case of Caste Violence, recommendations to search on google to get the historical facts about ‘Brahui’ and ‘Original Inhabitants of India’ etc doesn’t apply to be the right Source of Information Considered to make Historical Statements. The Internet facts are not considered as valuable data by any professional academic researches. (Except in .edu sources. Even that information should be cross verified with Quality Books and mentioned as secondary Sources). Could the act of considering the Search Engine Data in such Important Historical Facts be encouraged?

Moreover when there is a discussion or statement made about the Historical injustice done to a Clan or anybody, it is important that the concerned people speak the truth pointing directly to the People who have made those Historical Mutations and it is utmost important that it is spoken in a transparent manner. A sheer mention about the character portrayal of Tribes as Asuras in ancient Mythology without pointing to the Culprits is not helping in understanding the Gambling made in History of India by the a Cultural Sect and Projecting that Dravidians are no more the Original Inhabitants of India does not sound Ethical.

When such statements are made from the Judicial Department, it would be upheld as a Document against Dravidians in the future years. Hence it becomes indispensable to write this opposition.  Amidst the evidences where Geological Researches on Indus Valley Civilization and Human Life Evolution is establishing a fact about the connection of Dravidian Civilization with Indus Valley Civilization and amidst the circumstances where Brahminical-Hindutva is trying to muddle up the minds of the Richer Dominant Class of People in the name of Religion , the statement about Dravidians not to be the Original Inhabitants of India seem to be cynical and lead us to doubt if there is a Caste Political Ideology of “Divide and Rule” is in the back ground in the name of ‘Nationalism’ ?  The statements made about the Tribes in the Order does not directly point out Fingers on who were the people who portrayed Tribes as Asuras and talk about their present heirs  who carry the ‘Sacred Tradition’ in the name of Mythology.

“…..the tribals of India have  generally (though not invariably) retained a higher level of ethics than the non-tribals in our country. They normally do not cheat, tell lies, and do other misdeeds which many non-tribals do. They are generally superior in character to the non-tribals. It is time now to undo the historical injustice to them………”

The recommendations made to feel pity about the Tribals on the fact that they are good, they don’t lie etc does not talk about the Rights of their Existence and the Rights they deserve to be treated as Respected Humans. It appears to be just begging rather than firmly projecting their Human Rights.

The vindictiveness made on any Human is derogatory and everybody should unite to oppose it. Instead if there are requests made citing that someone is pitiable because they belong to this caste, community and creed or because they have such background gives the impression that the “pitty” statements are made name sake and it also contributes again to the discrimination amongst people. Justice Katju and Justice Misra have not recorded their condemnations against the crucial Dandakaranya atrocities, how the Capitalist Society and the Supporting Government are oppressing the People and deprive of their living rights and most importantly no mention about Imprisonment and Punishment to Dr. Binayak Sen for his considerate Medical Services provided to the Tribes. When there are current burning Issues happening against Tribes how important is the statement about who is the Original Inhabitant of India matters, does it mean that if someone is not an Indian they could be ill-treated?

How is the thesis that Dravidians are not the Original Inhabitants of India connected to the problems of Tribes being oppressed? Did Dravidians ill treat them? The History very clearly states that it was the Brahminical Sanadhana Dharma created by Manu as ‘Four Varnas’ and branded the Labour Sect as “Shudras”. It was after Aryans invasion so much of discriminations were infused into the Indian Society. The term “Adi Dravidar” implies that there were Original Inhabitants in the ancient India and they were oppressed because of the Brahminised Doctrines and later after the revolutionary fights made by Dr.B.R. Ambekar and Periyar the Religious Hypocrisy was brought to light. Special Reservations were made and Legal Rights were established in the law and Order to protect the right of the Tribes and Oppressed. After Ambedkar that Sect took over the name as “Dalit” to identify them. The above perspective is not seemed to be projected in the words of Honorable Judges. 

True Protests to retrieve the lost rights of the Tribes and Oppressed cannot be denied. The “Rights-Redemption” process should asses how they were oppressed Politically, Economically, Socially and most importantly discrimination by Caste. The Sect which indoctrinated those “Poisonous Oppressive Structures” in the society through various channels, including Religion should be pointed out directly and they should be condemned. (Even if it happens to be the Ruling Government).  The Religious Institutions and the Oppressing Dominant Sect who follow the Brahminical Varnasrama classification in various dimensions should be forfeited. Instead the research on Indian History made by Cambridge University based on linguistic facts and anatomic features have been taken into account, along with browsed information on ‘google search’ to project that “Dravidians are not the Original Inhabitants of India”.  This also triggers the question “How is the Origin of Dravidians connected to case of Human Rights Violation”?

The Tamilians in Srilanka have been massacred completely. The left behind are imprisoned in the worst camp facilities. Rest are escaping as refugees losing their livelihood. The atrocities of Srilankan army are now staged in Tamil Nadu Borders. The Tamilians are shot and killed brutally.  Similar atrocities are discharged against the Tribes and oppressed all over India. Amidst such perilous conditions what kind of political oppression would the projection “Dravidians are not Original Inhabitants of India” generate?

The thesis used in this case says that

“In Google ‘The original inhabitants of India’, it is mentioned :“A number of earlier anthropologists held the view that the Dravidian peoples together were a distinct race. However, comprehensive genetic studies have proven that this is not the case. The original inhabitants of India may be identified with the speakers of the Munda languages, which are unrelated to either Indo-Aryan or Dravidian languages”.

“Thus the generally accepted view now is that the original inhabitants of India were not the Dravidians but the pre-Dravidians Munda aborigines whose descendants presently live in parts of Chotanagpur (Jharkhand), Chattisgarh, Orissa, West Bengal, etc., the Todas of the Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu, the tribals in the Andaman Islands, the Adivasis in various parts of India (especially in the forests and hills) e.g. Gonds, Santhals, Bhils, etc.”

“Thus the generally accepted view now is that the original inhabitants of India were not the Dravidians but the pre-Dravidians Munda aborigines whose descendants presently live in parts of Chotanagpur (Jharkhand), Chattisgarh, Orissa, West Bengal, etc., the Todas of the Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu, the tribals in the Andaman Islands, the Adivasis in various parts of India (especially in the forests and hills) e.g. Gonds, Santhals, Bhils, etc.”

There is nothing to debate about the list of Tribals mentioned above. The projection of those Tribes by Cambridge University (Indian History, Part 1) as Pre-Dravidians and that they are the Original Inhabitants of India who contribute to the 8% of Indian Population and the rest 92% are immigrants is to be debated.

“……….India is broadly a country of immigrants. While North America (USA and Canada) is a country of new immigrants, who came mainly from Europe over the last four or five
centuries, India is a country of old immigrants in which people have been coming in over the last ten thousand years or so. Probably about 92% people living in India today are descendants of immigrants, who came mainly from the North-West, and to a lesser extent from the North-East. Since this is a point of great importance for the understanding of our country, it is necessary to go into it in some detail. 21. People migrate from uncomfortable areas ………….”

The order continues stating the natural, economical, political situations etc., as the migrating reasons.

The qualm starts here. Though the origin of mankind happened thousands of years ago, Prominent Historians and Anthropologists have concluded that History of present Unified India and South Asia to some extent is closely associated with Indus Valley Civilization. On the other hand researches about the Origin of Man Kind and Language is also said to be not complete until the Indus Script is deciphered. From the Harappan Archeological findings Historians strongly project that the Harappan Civilization is Dravidian Civilization. The linguistic Researchers have accepted that many languages in the world are influenced by Dravidian Languages.

If one has to assume that the Honorable Justice Mr. Markandey Katju and Justice Mrs. Gyan Sudha Misra are referring to the Origin of Mankind millions of years ago, then we may have to travel to Lemuria Continent, which would take us to the Evolution of Mankind from Monkeys.  In such case it is vital that I present some Historical facts about the Lemuria Continent and its relation to Kanyakumari (the Kumari kandam).

“Kumari Kandam” refered by Historians and Geologists as “Lemuria Continent” is proved to be the 1st place of the Origin of Mankind says Mr. Jothi Prakasam, quoting the words of Mr. Shasthri. He further adds “About 82,000 years ago it is stated by Geologists that four Continents were united together as Lemuria Continent, which is presently the Kumari Continent. There could have been many Rivers, Lakes, Oceans and Islands in the Kumari Continent which were connected as a single Land Mass connecting Madagascar and Australia from the Southwest and Southeast respectively to the present-day Kanyakumari District coast”. Also “The Geological & linguistic resemblances of the Australian Aborginals, African Aborginals, Amerian Aborginals and Dravidian Aborginals  is because those Aborginals originated from the Lemurian Continent, the place where the origin of Man Kind happened”.

Though one cannot accept that all People speaking the Dravidian Languages are Dravidians, the fact that Tamil as a language serves to be the mother of Dravidian Language and there was a race who were identified as ‘Adi-Dravidas’ right from the ancient time spoke Tamil.  Tamil Epic Silappathikaram and Sangam Literatures furnish a great deal of information about The History of Tamil and History of Dravidian People. The Lingustic History of Tamil as a Dravidian Language has not been taken into account before projecting the facts about Dravidians in this Case.

“It must be remembered, however, that, when the term ‘Dravidian’ is thus used ethnographically, it is nothing more than a convenient label. It must not be assumed that the speakers of the Dravidian languages are aborigines………….. “It is the Pre-Dravidian aborigines, and not the later and more cultured Dravidians, who must be regarded as the primitive existing race…… These Pre-Dravidians …… are differentiated from the Dravidian classes by their short stature and broad (platyrhine) noses. There is strong ground for thebelief that the Pre-Dravidians are ethnically related to the Veddas of Ceylon, the Talas of the Celebes, the Batin of Sumatra, and possibly the Australians.(The Madras Presidency, Thurston, pp. 124-5.)”. It would seem probable, then, that the original speakers of the Dravidian languages were outsiders………”

The above findings were given by Mr. Thurston during the British-India period, which supersede the Brahminical Classification of “Manu-Shastra” classifying Dravidians as Shudras.  One cannot ignore the Political Reason behind such Classification by them during that Period. The above Research was also published by Cambridge University.

Let us see some Lingustic facts from “Soodaamani Nigandu” “Amongst the World Languages, Tamil, Sanskrit, Chinese, Latin, Greek and Hebrew are considered Classical (Old) with rich root words and syntax. Researches on Tamil Language project that Tamil is a natural language with rich Grammatical Structure and Syntax which was very much present as Spoken and Written language. The Classical Tamil from the ancient time is identified as a Dravidian Group Language, instead of identifying it as a separate language by itself”.

Calling Thamizh as Dravidam by itself is a trans-mutation. Thamizh mutated as Dravidam. It was the Sanskrit Scholars who called Thamizh as Dravidam. ‘zha” in Tamil is unique and could not be pronounced by the Sanskrit spoken. So they called it as ‘Thami’ then it became ‘Thrami’ – Thramil – Thamilam – Thramilam – thramidam – thravidam – Dravidam. In Prakrit it is mentioned as “Thamizham – Thamila – Thavila – Thavida” says Dr. Grierson.

The book Mahavamsam which speaks about Srilankan History in Paali language mentions “Thamilo” in Greek Scholar and Historian Ptolemy (B.C 119-161) writes as Timirika (kaa- means Country) for Tamil Country.  The Tribes of Southern Parts of Nepal are called “Thimil”. There is a city in Afghanistan by the name “Thamizhak”. The Muslims there speak a language with Tamil word mixed in it says Maagaral Kaarthikeyanar. Such similarities in world Languages and South Asian Languages establish the fact that the Ancient Tamil Speaking Humankind migrated to different parts of the World, who could be the forefathers of the Human Kind.  However we approach Tamil is the Language Name and the Name of the Race is Tamilians (instead of Dravidians).

Tolkappiyam (Tamil Grammar Book, 2000 years old) and Other Sangam Literatures are classified by the four types of Land it is sung on (which is not there in the Sanskrit Literatures). One cannot consider the ancient Tamil Literatures as just Literature; rather they are an important source for Geological Research. They talk about the Lives of People as classification of Land as “Tinais”. Silappathikaram and other Literatures have recorded the destruction of the Continents by the Sea Collision. (“The subduction of continental crust to this depth has never been reported in the Himalayas and is also extremely rare in the rest of world,” said Anju Pandey of the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) in Southampton (Great Britain), who led the research. Subduction is a geological process in which one edge of a crustal plate is forced sideways and downward into the mantle below another. (

Marx Mullar also quoted in his research about mixture of Languages as “Munda Speaking People are Dravidians”. The connections between Munda Language and Dravidian Language have been questioned by the Honorable Judges and said that it is difficult to trace back to the roots as they have got fused. 

“……..Here, according to the evidence now available, it would seem that the Austric element is the oldest, and that it has been overlaid in different regions by successive waves of Dravidian and Indo-European on the one hand, and by Tibeto-Chinese on the other. Most ethnologists hold that there is no difference in physical type between the present speakers of Munda and Dravidian languages. This statement has been called in question; but, if it is true, it shows that racial conditions have become so complicated that it is no longer possible to analyse their constituents. Language alone has preserved a record which would otherwise have been lost………..”

It is also said that “The linguistic strata would thus appear to be arranged in the order Austric, Dravidian, Indo-European.” – Austric is a Linguistic classification arrived by the Germans (who are great supporters of Sankrit) and add “Dravidian characteristics have been traced alike in Vedic and Classical Sanskrit, in the Prakrits, or early popular dialects, and in the modern vernaculars derived from them.”

Further they said that

“There is good ground, then, for supposing that, before the coming of the Indo-Aryans speakers the Dravidian languages predominated both in Northern and in Southern India; but, as we have seen, older elements are discoverable in the populations of both regions, and therefore the assumption that the Dravidians are aboriginal is no longer tenable. Is there any evidence to show whence they came into India? “

“No theory of their origin can be maintained which does not account for the existence of Brahui, the large island ofDravidian speech in the mountainous regions of distantBaluchistan which lie near the western routes into India. Is Brahui a surviving trace of the immigration of Dravidian –
1speaking peoples into India from the west? Or does it mark the limits of an overflow from India into Baluchistan? Both theories have been held; but as all the great movements of peoples have been into India and not out of India, and as a remote mountainous district may be expected to retain the survivals of ancient races while it is not likely to have been colonized, the former view would a priori seem to be by far the more probable.”
(See ‘Brahui’ on Google)

Google Searching is not considered as an academic research tool and Professional academic Institutions does not accept the Browsed information from WIKI etc. because any one can edit in it and add. (May be they could be listed as secondary source, if it is from .edu sites). The Judges have not mentioned about where they cross checked the facts from google search and other Cambridge University Records in any other Indian Historical books, especially written by Tamil Scholars. Most European and Foreign scholars including Coldwell has done their linguistic researches keeping Sanskrit as the base. Though they learned tamil and took Tamil Books into account for Research, they were not proficient in Sangam Literature which is the treasure of History of Tamil People, Tamil Lives and Tamil Culture. Mr. A. Marx in his book “nachchai vidhaikkum Varalaatru paadangal” quotes Mr. Mc. Alphin and said that “Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Thulu, Malayalam, Brahui are all identified as Dravidian Language.  In this base Indus Valley Civilization have the structures of “Proto Elamite” Civilization. Scholars namely Father Heras, Russian Scholars under the leadership of Y. Knorosov and later Mr. Asko Parpola have also concluded that the Indus language was nearest to the Dravidian in linguistic structure. The Sanskrit Scholar and the author of the book “From Volga to Ganges” Rahula Sangrithyayan has also put forth that Dravidian were the pre-existing People before the Aryans and they were much advanced in Civilization, they had written scripts much earlier. (The Lingustic History of Tamil is presented here not to boast of Tamil Patriotism, but to present the fact that Indian Histroy, South Asian History, Indus Valley Civilization and Dravidian Culture are closely related and thus Dravidians are Original Inhabitants of that Civilization though it was not the Present India, but a part of India??)

We could add as many Facts as possible, considering the length now I am proceeding from linguistic factor to Biological, Social and Geographical Facts.

Darwin’s Researches state that Man Kind Originated from one place and migrated to different parts of the World.  If they had originated from different parts then there should be some anatomical differences in the Human Kind.  Instead all Human have similar Body, Body Parts, similar manners etc., so one need not consider that a Particular Human Kind has different Origin from the rest. 

Thus the evolution of Human Kind had Originated in the same place had got dispersed to different parts of the World due to natural disasters, Destruction due to War, later for Livelihood etc.  This had been happening for thousands of years. History says that before a Geographical Structure as Country was made, People who lived as clans in the Jungles, Hillocks, Islands etc were migrating to different parts of the World. Geologists later divided them as Four Continents and conducted their researches. We may identify People as Immigrants who started migrating to Countries (i.e. after colonization, and after the permanent Political and Geographical Structure as Countries were arrived). Christians and Muslims had arrived India much before that, Majority of the ancient citizens had converted to Buddhism, later to Christianity and Islam because of the severe oppression by the Brahminical Sect. (The ancient name as Bharatham to India itself is not very clear).

India is a name given by the British Rulers during their rule after uniting various regions for Political and Administration reasons which were then small cities, Pattinams and smaller Kingdoms. How is the statement by the Judges that who were living in India 10,000 years ago are considered to be the Original Inhabitants of India considered to be a knowledgeable approach in the study of Humanity (Anthropology). The Projection about a Race which lived thousands of years before the unification of Colonized India as not the Original inhabitants of India sounds uncanny. Then we could only ask if that time it was the same India?

As per Justices statements, how could we arrive at a conclusion that for the past 10,000 years there was no Racial Mix happening amongst the Indigenous People? Again we have to question was India the same as now known as a Country with the structures as State etc.  The Anthropological Researches on the Indigenous People is made to understand the Culture and Civilization of a group or a clan. Instead of using that for retrieving their lost rights, Politicians and Capitalists are using it to dictate Power and indoctrinate various Politics.  The classification amongst the Indian descendants is no less than “Divide and Rule” policy which the Europeans had followed. 

The study of Aryan Invasion and confrontation against Brahmanism is considered important to deconstruct the dictatorship of that Sect over Cultural, Social, Political and Philosophical Values that is dominant in the Indian Society.  This is important to confiscate the caste conflicts and the discriminations lay in the name of Religion and Caste.  If, in case as per their argument Aryan’s did not invade but as much a part of ancient Bhratham is to be considered true; one cannot ignore the fact the sect which identified themselves as “Noble” (Aryan means Noble) carried out measures to oppress the Indigenous Culture and , People to become the dominant sect and attain Political and Administrative Power. They encouraged the Kings to command war on smaller Kingdoms and used that to kill poor people or people of lower castes (as dictated by them). In this context when a Projection about the descendants of the Indigenous People of the same Country is made following the system of the Arya-Sanskrit approach, one may arrive at a conclusion that it will not give any Justice to the oppressed.

When a particular Sect or group attains Power in the society by projecting some individuality, superiority etc., the oppressed group is forced to dig the History and search their roots to disprove the dominating group. This has been happening all over the World and in India it roots down to fighting against Brahminsation-Hindutva. Researches on Dravidian People and Dravidian Culture are proving to be a powerful one in the recent times tearing the masks of the Arya-Brahmins and the dominant Hindu Groups. In such a milieu projection about the Dravidians not being the Original Inhabitants of India is a sensitive issue and the Hindutva Political Dominance in such statements is to be doubted.

Natural Collisions, Sea Erosions, War etc has caused so much of changes in the lives of Humanity. They had to live Nomadic life for several thousands of years. They had to migrate to places for their Livelihood. During such migrations there were many chances of mixing of Races even amongst the Indigenous People (the Tribes), changes in the features, Language, Cultural habits could not be eliminated.  Cultural Changes would have happened or New Culture would have progressed. Apart from this the natural elements of the new place which they migrated would also cause changes in the Humanity in terms of features, Language (sound and pronunciation) and Culture. When Indigenous people had been migrating the above factors would have contributed to the mutation of the earlier structures.

If we take the above into account and had to arrive at understanding “Migrants”, then we should count from the era when the Nomadic life had come to an end by majority of the ancient Clans and when they were safe from Natural Disasters and War effects etc. To be precise the time after when People stopped Migrating in huge number of groups for Livelihood and to put it with the present Political Structure the time after the Geographical Structure as Country was established. Even then such identification and classification is needed to understand the various Culture and Systems spread across the World. Instead the Anthropological researches are used by Political Group and Capitalists to destroy the minorities and develop Capital Markets for them.

In the early times, during such group migration Indigenous People settled in the hillocks, then moved downwards following the path of the falls for exploring newer opportunities. Few groups settled on the hillocks itself for hundreds of years and made their settlements. Such people moved to the other parts seasonally, made money and returned to their homes.  The lower Parts of the hills or hillocks were getting developed because of settlements and they were slowly transforming into Villages, Big Towns and Cities. After this the Race-Mix in the Indigenous People could have been stopped as they isolated themselves, but the rest of the group who moved down were mixing with other Clans, other Races and got transformed into a developed Sect of People.  They adapted themselves to foreign Cultures, Business Models, Trade Exchanges happened and the Civilization Change occurred. These could be understood as we read History.  The ‘Civilized’ group welcomed Industrialization, Modern Structures and adapted to western policies whereas the Ethnic Group or the Tribes who settled in mountainous regions refrained themselves from such adaptation with much love to nature. One could understand the major difference from the Caste stiffness that exists in the ‘Civilized’ group which does not prevail in the Tribal Communities. The Cultural transformation is most dominant in the Cities, then it reaches to smaller Towns, then it spreads to Villages. But the Villages also maintain stiffness in certain Matriarchal Traditions, which continues even today. The most populated Cities and the smaller towns surrounding them has been the target of the Capitalists and the Government. Recently the acquisition is extending to the settlements of the Tribes in the Jungles.

In order to dump the market with their Products and slowly acquire the minds of People, Capitalists enter into the Country by various means. Cultural and Ethnographical Researches are one such mean. Through such researches they understand the individuality of a target group and propagate their Products labeling with Values coined to attract these groups. On the other hand they give economical pressure (threat) to the Government and establish their Multinational Industries by propagating that it would develop newer opportunities.  Thus they take control of the World Economy to Local Politics which is the most awful effect of Globalization. They will worry about saving Tigers, Protecting the Environment etc (which largely gets destructed by them) and thus try to capture the minds of the Middle Class and the Richer Class. They make the middle class and richer class insensitive to the economical conditions of the Poor and Oppressed, their livelihood struggles by making up as if India is by all means a sophisticated Country with utmost Freedom.  Bourgeois are kept unaware of the Class Struggles in the remote parts of the Country.  Few Capitalists establish NGOs and put a face that they are the saviors of the Poor and Oppressed in the World, thus eliminating the quest in the minds of the people “why poor is always poor? Why is a labor always from the lower caste? Why are the Tribes below the Poverty Line?”

The Tribes are People who did not adapt to any Industrialization, Civilized Cultural Changes, and Mechanization which were against nature.  The Jungles are rich in resources because they resist to Natural Invasions by the Capitalists and the Government which is in favor of them. There are several attempts made to covert them to the civilized structure, which results in vain. The Tribes resist and fight. There are plans made to move them to developed towns or Cities (which are usually outskirts with bad infrastructure and transportation) and thus seize the rich resources of the Jungle.  When the Tribes and the ‘Original inhabitants’ resist that and enter into fights they are oppressed by special CRPF forces and the people who support these fights are labeled Maoists and haunted by the Government with the support of the Capitalists. One could understand that he tribes have continued to live in communities (communism) without the need of ‘Private Property’ to live rich lives. They are Nature-Friendly and Saviors of Nature.

The Ethnic Groups have been pushed to worst status because of the ‘Sanadhana Dharma’ which classifies them as Shudras and few others as ‘Panjamas’ and were made slaves to the Landlords and Bourgeois. Then the modern Industrialization and the Capitalists society took over that role. After Dr. Ambedkar and Periyar had pointed out that one cannot be labeled by Birth and it is the Brahminic sect who had propagated such discrimination, People joined them to fight against these Human Rights Violations. Dr. Ambedkar could be the best face of non-violence as he only believed in retrieving the lost rights of the Oppressed legally. He maintained patience inspite of all Humiliations he encountered and he guided his people also in that path. Those people labeled themselves as ‘Dalit’ (meaning oppressed people) to put forth their self respect. Hon. Justice Mr. Markandey Katju and Hon. Justice Mrs. Gyan Sudha Misra have not included facts on such caste and class struggles in this case of oppression, in which the caste happens to be the background of this atrocity against Nandha Bhai. The Judges have not condemned the Veda or the Manu Sastra or any of the Brahmin Literatures which address those people as Shudras, instead they said that

“The injustice done to the tribal people of India is a shameful chapter in our country’s history. The tribals were called ‘rakshas’ (demons), ‘asuras’, and what not. They were slaughtered in large numbers, and the survivors and their descendants were degraded, humiliated, and all kinds of atrocities inflicted on them for centuries. They were deprived of their lands, and pushed into forests and hills where they eke out a miserable existence of poverty, illiteracy, disease, etc. And now efforts are being made by some people to deprive them even of their forest and hill land where they are living, and the forest produce on which they survive.”

“ The well known example of the injustice to the tribals is the story of Eklavya in the Adiparva of the Mahabharat. Eklavya wanted to learn archery, but Dronacharya refused to teach him, regarding him as low born. Eklavya then built a statue of Dronacharya and practiced archery before the statue. He would have perhaps become a better archer than Arjun, but sinceArjun was Dronacharya’s favourite pupil Dronacharya told Eklavya to cut off his right thumb and give it to him as ‘guru dakshina’ (gift to the teacher given traditionally by the student after his study is complete). In his simplicity Eklavya did what he was told.  This was a shameful act on the part of Dronacharya. He had not even taught Eklavya, so what right had he to demand ‘guru dakshina’, and that too of the right thumb of Eklavya so that the latter may not become a better archer than his favourite pupil Arjun?...”

“Despite this horrible oppression on them, the tribals of India have generally (though not invariably) retained a higher level of ethics than the non-tribals in our country. They normally do not cheat, tell lies, and do other misdeeds which many non-tribals do. They are generally superior in character to the non-tribals. It is time now to undo the historical injustice to them.    Instances like the one with which we are concerned in this case deserve total condemnation and harsh punishment.  

With these observations the appeal stands dismissed. “

Few questions which arise from the above statement are: Who wrote such mythologies, which Cultural Sect did they belong to? Who labeled them as Rakshas and Asuras? (is the present society aware of this allegory?) Why were they oppressed and what is the role of Varnasram in oppression? Why are such mythologies, Sutras, Upanishads not yet banned? Why are the Justices openheartedly and transparently pointing out to the sect who disseminated Class Discriminations in the Indian Society?

Secondly who are the People who are depriving the Tribes of their lands? Instead of talking about the threats that the Tribes are facing currently because of the Past Brahminised-Hindutva administration policies and presently because of the Industrialization and Capitalistic acquisition, the Justices have gone into the details of projecting who are the Original inhabitants of India and also projected that Dravidians are not the Original inhabitants? How important or connected is this projection to the oppression faced by the Ethnic Group? Are Dravidians the threat to them? Are Dravidians oppressing them? The term ‘Adi Dravidar’ implies that Dravidians are also an oppressed Sect, who has also merged into the label ‘Dalit’ and fighting for their rights. So how could one state that Dravidians are not the Original inhabitants of the society?

It is really sad that the Responsible Head Citizens make such remarks about the Ethnic Groups within the Country and adding up to the Caste and Race Politics which is a burning issue in this Country.  Moreover statements like Tribes are very good people, they don’t lie etc is not a factor for one to consider them as equal, any human being reserve the right to be treated with self respect, whether they lie, whether they are bad. The core issue with the Oppression is the Caste Discrimination and the present State of Affairs. It is Vital that projections about those groups are thrown open to Public. This may help seek Justice, rather than identifying who is the Original inhabitant of India.

(from the name ‘Bharatham’ to the politics of addressing Vedic period as “Golden Vedic Era”, Hindutva is into Fascist attitude of mutating History, see. “Nachchai Vidhaikkum Varalaatrup Paadangal, (Poison infused in Historical Lessons), A. Marx, Karuppu Pradhigal, 2005).

*This article is translated from the original article written in Tamil by me. The Tamil article is published in “uyirezhuthu” magazine.


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2. Soodamani Nigandu, Publisher Kovai Ilancheranar, Saraswathi Mahal Library, 1999
3. “Nachchai Vidhaikkum Varalaatrup Paadangal, (Poison infused in Historical Lessons), A. Marx, Karuppu Pradhigal, 2005).
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5. Ulagayatham, Devi Prasad Chattopadhyaya (Translated by S. Thothathri) NCBH, 2010
6. Kovil-Nilam-Jaathi, Po. Velsamy, Kaalachuvadu Publication, 2007
7. Pandaiya Vedha Thaththuvangalum, Vedha Maruppu Bouththamum, Na. Vaanamaamalai, Alaigal Publication, 2008.
8. The Tamil (Their History, Culture and Civilization), Institue of Asian Studies, 1996

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